Aims and objectives To investigate the prevalence of depression in the third trimester of pregnancy and identify the related demographic risk factors. Background Antenatal depression as a disabling and treatable disease has a wide-ranging impact on perinatal women and has received extensive attention from researchers. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted at three public hospitals. Methods Demographic questionnaire was developed from the literature review, and depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the association between depression and demographic predictors. STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies was applied in this paper (see Appendix S1). Result A total of 773 pregnant women participated in the study. 29.6% of participants scored more than 9 points on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In the final logistic model, living in rural area, marital satisfaction, assisted reproductive technology, lacking of prenatal health knowledge and life events were strongly significantly associated with antenatal depression. Moreover, living in an extended family, without Medicare insurance, unemployed, working as civil servants or healthcare workers, and lower household income also predicted antenatal depression. However, education level, smoking or drinking before pregnancy was found not to be associated with antenatal depression. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the prevalence of antenatal depression was high. Satisfied with the current marital status, pregnancy without assisted reproductive technology, knowledge of perinatal care and no life events recently were considered as the protective factors for antenatal depression. Relevance to clinical practice Antenatal psychological interventions should focus on how to improve the marital satisfaction and the relationship with their family members. More attentions should be paid to the women who have had some life events recently or received assisted reproductive technology for pregnancy.
Aim To develop and psychometrically test the distress thermometer for caregivers (DT-C) and document the distress level in primary caregivers of children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia. Design A validation diagnostic accuracy study and descriptive cross-sectional survey. Methods DT-C was adopted based on Harverman's distress thermometer for parents. The cut-off score was detected by using receiver operating characteristic analysis with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 as a reference standard in a sample of 324 caregivers of children and adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia in China collected between Jan 2017 and Feb 2018. Results One-item DT of DT-C indicated a good retest reliability (r = 0.86) and one-item DT and the Problem List (PL) indicated good convergent validity (r = 0.67-0.88). Overall and individual PL domains showed good internal consistency (KR 20 values ranged from 0.70-0.90). Setting seven as the cut-off score, the values of sensitivity (0.72-0.81), specificity (0.86-0.90), Youden's index (0.61-0.70), positive predictive value (0.67-0.74), and negative predictive value (0.84-0.92) were most satisfactory and area under curve values showed significantly excellent discrimination (0.88-0.90). The average DT score for the 324 participants was 6.34 (SD 2.49), with 46.9% of the participants above the cut-off. Caregivers above the cut-off score faced significant multiple problems in practical, family/social, cognitive, emotional, and parenting domains. Conclusion The DT-C, with six domains containing 35 items in Problem List and with the cut-off score at seven, can be a rapid screening tool to measure distress in these caregivers. The level of distress in caregivers was relatively high. Psychoeducation on specific needs and a solid mutual support network are recommended for mitigating caregivers' distress. Impact This study adapted a reliable DT-C to measure distress of caregivers, which has the potential to be introduced to caregivers of other types of child and adolescent mental disorders in research, assessments and care planning for health professionals.