Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a leading cause of morbidity in jump-landing athletes. Landing mechanics are identified as a factor associated with PT and/or patellar tendon abnormality. This study aimed to identify key jump-landing variables associated with PT. Thirty-six junior elite basketball players (men n = 18, women n = 18) were recruited from a Basketball Australia development camp. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data during a stop-jump task were collected as well as ultrasound scans of the patellar tendons and recall history of training load data. Mixed-model factorial analyses of variance were used to determine any significant between-group differences. Of the 23 participants included for statistical analyses, 11 had normal bilateral patellar tendons (controls) and eight reported PT (currently symptomatic); however, the four participants categorized as asymptomatic with patellar tendon abnormality on diagnostic imaging were excluded from statistical analyses due to their small sample size. Athletes with PT displayed a similar knee flexion angle at initial foot-ground contact (IC) and hip extension strategy during a stop-jump horizontal landing. Despite a similar kinematic technique, athletes with PT utilized a strategy of a longer stance duration phase from IC to peak force. This strategy did not lead to those athletes with PT decreasing their peak vertical GRF nor patellar tendon force during landing but enabled these athletes to land with a lower rate of loading (control 59.2 +/- 39.3 vs. PT 29.4 +/- 33.7 BW.s-1). Athletes with PT still reported significantly reduced training volume (control 4.9 +/- 1.8 vs PT 1.8 +/- 1.1 sessions/wk; total training time/wk control 2.4 +/- 1.0 vs PT 1.4 +/- 1.1 h/wk).
Objectives: To investigate seasonal injury incidence and musculoskeletal screening as a predictor of injury in elite Olympic class sailors. Methods: A 12-month analysis of injury surveillance data was performed for elite Australian sailors (age = 16-30 years, N= 22). Pre-season musculoskeletal screening (incorporating mobility, stability and neural tests) and seasonal injury data were analysed for predictive relationships, and associations between potential predictor variables and injury status. Results: Injuries requiring medical attention occurred at a rate of 3.6 injuries/athlete, while injuries resulting in disability occurred at a rate of 0.6 injuries/athlete, with the lumbar spine the main site of injury (23% and 33%, respectively). Wrist and hand injury resulted in the highest number of days of disability (110 days), followed by injury to the lumbar spine (87 days). Across the season 75% of injuries to the lumbar spine occurred in the latter half of the season. The only screening measure predictive of injured/uninjured status was better left-sided single-leg decline-squat performance (OR= 0.29; 95% CI = 0.09-0.88; p = 0.03), while increasing age was significantly (p = 0.03) associated with thoracic (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.03-2.12) and lumbar spine (OR= 1.46; 95% CI = 1.04-2.04) injury. Conclusions: Though clinically useful, current screening protocols do not adequately assess the risk of seasonal injury in elite Olympic class sailors, and should be revised. Due to the increased risk of spinal injury and potential lost/modified participation in older Olympic class sailors, injury prevention activities should be individualised and age appropriate. (C) 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.