Talpey, SW, Young, WB, and Beseler, B. Effect of instructions on selected jump squat variables. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2508-2513, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare 2 instructions on the performance of selected variables in a jump squat (JS) exercise. The second purpose was to determine the relationships between JS variables and sprint performance. Eighteen male subjects with resistance training experience performed 2 sets of 4 JS with no extra load with the instructions to concentrate on (a) jumping for maximum height and (b) extending the legs as fast as possible to maximize explosive force. Sprint performance was assessed at 0- to 10-m and 10- to 20-m distances. From the JS jump height, peak power, relative peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and countermovement distance were measured from a force platform and position transducer system. The JS variables under the 2 instructions were compared with paired t-tests, and the relationships between these variables and sprint performance were determined with Pearson's correlations. The jump height instruction produced greater mean jump height and peak velocity (p < 0.05), but the fast leg extension instruction produced greater (p < 0.05) peak force (3.7%). There was a trivial difference between the instructions for peak power output (p > 0.05). Jump height was the variable that correlated most strongly with 10-m time and 10- to 20-m time under both instructions. The height instruction produced a stronger correlation with 10-m time (r = -0.455), but the fast leg extension JS produced a greater correlation with 10-20 time (r = -0.545). The results indicate that instructions have a meaningful influence on JS variables and therefore need to be taken into consideration when assessing or training athletes.
In Australian Football, set shot goal kicking is when a player has a shot at goal after taking a mark (i.e., catching a kicked ball) or receiving a free kick (i.e., penalty from an opposing player). In the past two decades, Australian football has improved in nearly all aspects of the game, yet set shot goal kicking accuracy has declined. The purpose of the current pilot study was to investigate whether pressure acclimatization training improves Australian football goal kicking under pressure. Twelve football players assigned to either an experimental (EG) or a control group (CG) completed a pre-intervention test, intervention, and post-intervention test. During the pre-intervention and post-intervention tests, participants attempted 10 goal kicking trials under low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) conditions. After five attempts, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire. During the intervention period, the EG practiced under HP, while the CG practiced under LP. These pilot results indicated a significant increase in participants ' anxiety from LP to HP for both groups and a significant decrease in accuracy from pre-intervention to post-intervention. In the post-intervention test, the CG was more accurate under HP than the EG, indicating no significant advantage by practicing under pressure and contradicting other acclimatization studies. These results may ignite a debate about the benefits of acclimatization training, but caution should be exercised when interpreting the results considering the pilot nature of the study. Larger sample sizes should be used to further explore these effects. Future research in acclimatization training is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)