A useful patient admission prediction model that helps the emergency department of a hospital admit patients efficiently is of great importance. It not only improves the care quality provided by the emergency department but also reduces waiting time of patients. This paper proposes an automatic prediction method for patient admission based on a fuzzy minâ€“max neural network (FMM) with rules extraction. The FMM neural network forms a set of hyperboxes by learning through data samples, and the learned knowledge is used for prediction. In addition to providing predictions, decision rules are extracted from the FMM hyperboxes to provide an explanation for each prediction. In order to simplify the structure of FMM and the decision rules, an optimization method that simultaneously maximizes prediction accuracy and minimizes the number of FMM hyperboxes is proposed. Specifically, a genetic algorithm is formulated to find the optimal configuration of the decision rules. The experimental results using a large data set consisting of 450740 real patient records reveal that the proposed method achieves comparable or even better prediction accuracy than state-of-the-art classifiers with the additional ability to extract a set of explanatory rules to justify its predictions.
For reinforcement learning tasks with multiple objectives, it may be advantageous to learn stochastic or non-stationary policies. This paper investigates two novel algorithms for learning non-stationary policies which produce Pareto-optimal behaviour (w-steering and Q-steering), by extending prior work based on the concept of geometric steering. Empirical results demonstrate that both new algorithms offer substantial performance improvements over stationary deterministic policies, while Q-steering significantly outperforms w-steering when the agent has no information about recurrent states within the environment. It is further demonstrated that Q-steering can be used interactively by providing a human decision-maker with a visualisation of the Pareto front and allowing them to adjust the agent’s target point during learning. To demonstrate broader applicability, the use of Q-steering in combination with function approximation is also illustrated on a task involving control of local battery storage for a residential solar power system.