INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). METHODS: Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). RESULTS: There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411].
Visual selective attention is thought to underly inhibitory control during pointing movements. Accounts of inhibitory control during pointing movements make differential predictions about movement deviations towards or away from highly salient non-target flankers based on their potential cortical activation and subsequent inhibition: (1) Tipper et al. (Vis Cogn 4:1-38, 1997) "response vector model" predicts movements away from highly salient flankers; (2) Welsh and Elliott's (Q J Exp Psychol 57:1031-1057, 2004a and J Mot Behav 36:200-211, 2004b) "response activation model" predicts movements towards highly salient flankers early in the response, that is resolved by a race for inhibition. To eliminate the confounds of physical properties, such as obstacle avoidance and information cues of non-target objects, pointing was conducted in a virtual environment (graphical user interface). Participants were 14 skilled computer users who moved a computer cursor with a mouse to virtual targets. Analysis revealed non-target flankers significantly interfered with movement consistent with action centred selective attention, and reflecting a proximity-to-hand effect. Spatial analysis revealed evidence of highly salient flankers attracting movement, and less salient flankers repelling movement, supporting Welsh and Elliott's response activation model. These effects were achieved in a virtual 2D environment where interference caused by the physical properties of objects was less cogent.