While increasing numbers of young high school students engage in part-time work, there is no consensus about its impact on educational outcomes. Indeed, this field has had a dearth of research. This paper presents a review of recent research, primarily from Australia and the United States, although it is acknowledged that there are considerable contextual differences. Suggestions for school counsellors to harness students' experiences to assist in educational and career decision-making are presented. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling is the property of Australian Academic Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
This paper discusses the effect of clustering on statistical tests and illustrates this effect using classroom environment data. Most classroom environment studies involve the collection of data from students nested within classrooms and the hierarchical nature to these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this paper studies the influence of intraclass correlations on tests of statistical significance conducted with the individual as the unit of analysis. Theory that adjusts t‐test scores for nested data in two‐group comparisons is presented and applied to classroom environment data. This paper demonstrates that Type I error rates inflate greatly as the intraclass correlation increases. Data analysis techniques that recognise the clustering of students in classrooms in classroom environment studies are essential, and it is recommended that either multilevel analysis or adjustments to statistical parameters be undertaken in studies involving nested data.