OBJECTIVE: This study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), latent class analysis (LCA), and factor mixture model (FMM) to ascertain the best model for ADHD symptoms, as presented in the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale (SWAN). METHOD: Mother ratings of the ADHD symptoms of 418 clinic-referred children and adolescents were obtained. RESULTS: The findings provided most support for an FMM with two classes (less severe inattention [IA] and hyperactivity/impulsivity [HI] symptoms and more severe IA/HI symptoms) and two factors (IA and HI) model. The more severe class had more individuals with the ADHD diagnosis, especially the combined type. CONCLUSION: The findings are discussed in relation to dimensional and categorical views of ADHD.
This study uses confirmatory factor analysis procedures to examine the factor structure of the mother and father versions of the Parental AcceptanceRejection Questionnaire (PARQ) and their measurement invariance across ratings provided by 314 Australian adults and 509 adults in the United States. The adult version of the PARQ is a 60-item self-report instrument designed to measure adults’ perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood. The questionnaire contains four scales measuring warmth/ affection, hostility/aggression, indifference/neglect, and undifferentiated rejection. Results of analyses support the proposed four-factor model. All but six items in the father version and all items in the mother version show invariance across the two national groups. Overall, the results indicate support for the factorial model of the PARQ, as well as measurement equivalence across the national groups tested